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Drug resistance is a condition in which a specific genetic mutation is present in a single strain of a drug that has been used for years or decades in some clinical trials. Drug resistance arises when an organism uses a gene that causes the drug to become effective against a new strain of the same organism. Drug resistance may be caused by mutation in one of three ways: 1) gene mutations resulting from use in clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies and other scientific institutions; 2) gene mutations in products manufactured by commercial enterprises; or 3) resistance from drug-related mutations in the organism or its genetic material. Drug resistance occurs through natural selection and mutations that result from natural processes of DNA modification, such as mutation in chromatin. Drug-resistant organisms are typically found in animal and human reservoirs and may often be a major source of drug-resistant bacteria in hospitals, Some drug resistance occurs in human medicine because of changes in the genetic instructions or the use of antibiotics against bacterial infections in the patient. Although drug resistance may not be readily detectable in hospital care settings it can be. When antibiotic resistance is found among patients, immediate antimicrobial therapy is often initiated. Antibiotics that have only mild antifungal activity are sometimes used, and occasionally they have been considered for non-neoplastic uses.